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TUTORIAL SAP 2000®

SAP2000®
Integrated
Finite Element Analysis
and
Design of Structures
GETTING STARTED
Computers and Structures, Inc.
Berkeley, California, USA
Version 7.1
Revised February 1999

1COPYRIGHT

 
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baca selengkapnya
The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are
proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership
rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program
or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written
authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohib-
ited.
Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained
from:
Computers and Structures, Inc.
1995 University Avenue
Berkeley, California 94704 USA
tel: (510) 845-2177
fax: (510) 845-4096
e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com
web: www.csiberkeley.com
© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–1999.
The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
2DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE
INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000.
THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED.
IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND
UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IM-
PLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE
ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.
THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMP-
TIONSOF THE PROGRAMANDMUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY
THE RESULTS.
3ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks are due to all of the numerous structural engineers, who over the
years have given valuable feedback that has contributed toward the en-
hancement of this product to its current state.
Special recognition is due Dr. Edward L. Wilson, Professor Emeritus,
University of California at Berkeley, who was responsible for the con-
ception and development of the original SAP series of programs and
whose continued originality has produced many unique concepts that
have been implemented in this version.
4Table of Contents
Chapter I Welcome to SAP2000 1
Chapter II Getting Started 5
What Your SAP2000 Package Includes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
About the Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Single User Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Network Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Network Workstation Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Installing from a CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Installing from a Network Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Installing the Sentinel Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Removing SAP2000 from Your System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Using the Hardware Key Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
On a Local Workstation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
On a Local Area Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Help Us to Help You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Phone and Fax Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Online Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Upgrading from SAP90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Upward Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
i
5Chapter III The Graphical User Interface 19
The Structural Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The SAP2000 Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Main Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Main Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Side Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Display Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Status Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Viewing Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2-D and 3-D Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Pan, Zoom, and Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Element View Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Other Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Basic Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
File Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Defining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Setting View Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Assigning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Analyzing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Displaying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Designing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Locking and Unlocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Refreshing the Display Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
ii
SAP2000 Getting Started
6Chapter I
Welcome to SAP2000
SAP2000 represents themost sophisticated and user-friendly release of the SAP se-
ries of computer programs. This is the first version of SAP completely integrated
within Microsoft Windows. It features a powerful graphical user interface un-
matched in terms of ease-of-use and productivity.
Creation and modification of the model, execution of the analysis, and checking
and optimization of the design are all done through this single interface. Graphical
displays of the results, including real-time display of time-history displacements,
are easily produced. This programoffers a quantumleap forward in the waymodels
are created and modified, and in the way analysis and design are managed.
The analytical capabilities are just as powerful, representing the latest research in
numerical techniques and solution algorithms. This release is available in three dif-
ferent analytical versions that all share the same graphical user interface: SAP2000,
SAP2000 PLUS and SAP2000 Nonlinear.
All of these programs feature sophisticated capabilities, such as fast equation solv-
ers, force and displacement loading, non-prismatic frame elements, highly accurate
shell elements, Eigen and Ritz dynamic analysis, multiple coordinate systems for
skewed geometry,many different constraint options, the ability tomerge independ-
ently defined meshes, a fully-coupled 6-by-6 spring stiffness, and the option to
combine or envelope multiple dynamic analyses in the same run.
17The SAP2000 PLUS program adds unlimited capacity, bridge-analysis capabili-
ties, a complete range of finite elements, and time-history analysis options. Ground
motion effects with multiple base excitations can be included.
The SAP2000 Nonlinear version extends the PLUS capabilities by adding a dy-
namic nonlinear link element for gaps, hooks, isolators, dampers, hinges, andmore.
This nonlinear link element (Nllink) allows users tomodel the dynamic behavior of
everything from tension-only braces in buildings to post-yield hinges in three-
dimensional frames to elastomeric bearings for bridges and base-isolated buildings.
SAP2000 Nonlinear version also features static nonlinear pushover analysis capa-
bility for performance-based design of structures.
All of the above programs feature powerful and completely integrated design for
steel and concrete, available from within the same interface used to create and ana-
lyze the model. The design of steel frame members features initial member sizing
and iterative optimization. The design of concrete frame members includes the cal-
culation of the amount of reinforcing steel required. Members can be grouped for
design purposes, and a single mouse click on an element brings up the detailed de-
sign calculations.
The program is structured to support a wide variety of the latest national and inter-
national design codes for the automated design and check of concrete and steel
frame members. The program currently supports the following concrete design
codes:
• U.S. ACI 318-95 (1995) and AASHTO LRFD (1997),
• Canadian CSA-A23.3-94 (1994),
• British BS 8110-85 (1989),
• Eurocode 2 ENV 1992-1-1 (1992), and
• New Zealand NZS 3101-95 (1995).
The program currently supports the following steel design codes:
• U.S. AISC/ASD (1989), AISC/LRFD (1994), AASHTO LRFD (1997)
• Canadian CAN/CSA-S16.1-94 (1994),
• British BS 5950 (1990), and
• Eurocode 3 (ENV 1993-1-1).
The SAP name has been synonymous with state-of-the-art analytical solutions
since the introduction of SAP, SOLIDSAP, and SAP IV over twenty-five years
ago. To these sophisticated numerical techniques, SAP2000 adds a tremendously
2SAP2000 Getting Started
8easy and complete graphical user interface linked with powerful design capabili-
ties, providing the structural engineer with an analysis and design program une-
qualed in efficiency and productivity.
3Chapter I Welcome to SAP2000
9.10Chapter II
Getting Started
This chapter covers the installation, launching, and support procedures for
SAP2000.
Topics
• What Your SAP2000 Package Includes
• About the Manuals
• System Requirements
• Installation
• Removing SAP2000 from Your System
• Using the Hardware Key Device
• Technical Support
• Upgrading from SAP90
511What Your SAP2000 Package Includes
Your SAP2000 package includes the following:
• A single Compact Disk (CD) containing the Setup program, executable files,
support files, and sample data files for the version you ordered (SAP2000,
SAP2000 PLUS, or SAP2000 Nonlinear)
• Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Structures, by Edward L. Wilson
• Eight program manuals in four volumes:
– SAP2000 Getting Started, SAP2000 Basic Analysis Reference, SAP2000
Quick Tutorials, and SAP2000 Detailed Tutorial Including Pushover
Analysis (this volume)
– SAP2000 Analysis Reference
– SAP2000 Input File Format
– SAP2000 Steel Design Manual and SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual
The most recent versions of these manuals are included on the CD in Adobe
Acrobat PDF format for easy access. In addition, the CD contains the SAP2000
Verification Manual and the SAP2000 Graphical User Interface Manual.
• A hardware key device
About the Manuals
This manual and the other manuals in this volume are designed to help you quickly
become productive with SAP2000. The next chapter gives an introduction to the
basic concepts of the graphical user interface of the program.
The second part of this volume, the SAP2000 Basic Analysis Reference manual,
gives an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the structural model and the
analysis techniques used by SAP2000. It is recommended reading.
The third part of this volume, the SAP2000 Quick Tutorials manual, is intended to
provide three quick tutorials aimed at giving the first-time user hands-on experi-
ence with the modeling and design of structures using SAP2000.
The fourth part of this volume, the SAP2000 Detailed Tutorial Including Pushover
Analysismanual, is intended to provide a detailed tutorial aimed at giving youmore
thorough hands-on experience with the modeling, analyzing, designing, and even
pushover analysis of structures using SAP2000.
6SAP2000 Getting Started
12It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and work the tutorials in the
SAP2000 Quick Tutorials manual before attempting a real project with SAP2000.
Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from the
SAP2000 graphical user interface and in the other manuals supplied with the pro-
gram:
• See the SAP2000 Analysis Reference to learn about the advancedmodeling and
analysis features of the program.
• See the SAP2000 Input File Format manual if you need to know how to use a
text file to define your analysismodel.Most users do not need this information.
• See the SAP2000 Graphical User InterfaceManual to learn about the graphical
user interface. The manual is a replication of the on-line Help.
• See the SAP2000 Steel Design Manual and the SAP2000 Concrete Design
Manual for detailed design features specific to supported design codes.
System Requirements
SAP2000 will work on any Windows-based, IBM-compatible personal computer
with at least the following configuration:
• Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, or Pentium II processor
• A minimum of 32 MB of RAM
• At least 200 MB of free hard disk space. Program files require about 20 MB.
The remainder is needed for analytical scratch files. Large projectsmay require
much more disk space
• Microsoft Windows 95/98 or Windows NT 4.0 or higher operating system
• Windows-compatible graphics card andmonitor supporting at least 800 by 600
resolution and 256 colors
Installation
If you already have SAP2000 installed on your machine, please uninstall it first be-
fore installing the new version. To do this, follow the directions in the next topic en-
titled “Removing SAP2000 from Your System.”
System Requirements 7
Chapter II Getting Started
13Three types of installation are available:
• Single User installation installs the entire SAP2000 program on your local
computer. Use this type of installation if you are not connected to a network or
you want your installation to be independent of a network
• Network Server installation copies the entire SAP2000 program to a network
server. This would typically be performed by a network administrator to make
SAP2000 available for subsequent installation and execution by networkwork-
stations.
• Network Workstation installation installs SAP2000 on a network worksta-
tion using a minimum amount of local disk space. This requires that SAP2000
already be installed on a network server that is available to the workstation
whenever the program is used
If you are not sure what to do, choose single-user installation.
The type of program installation you choose is independent of how you access the
hardware key device. For example, a single-user installation can access the key de-
vice over the network. Alternatively, a network-workstation installation can access
the key on the local workstation. See Topic “Using the Hardware Key Device” later
in this chapter for more information.
IMPORTANT! After any installation, please read the README.TXT file in the
SAP2000 directory where you installed the program. This file contains important
information that may be more current than the program manuals. You may use any
editor or word-processor to review this file.
Single User Installation
To install the entire SAP2000 program on your local system:
• Turn on your computer and start Windows 95/98/NT
• IMPORTANT! No other applications should be running during the installa-
tion procedure. Close all other applications before proceeding!
• Follow the instructions below under either subtopic “Installing from a CD” or
subtopic “Installing from a Network Server”
• You will be asked to chose the destination folder in which to store the program
and support files on your local machine
• When asked to select the type of Setup, choose “Single User”
• Respond to the remaining prompts from SETUP to complete the installation
8 Installation
SAP2000 Getting Started
14• If you are ever going to attach the hardware key device to this computer then
follow the instructions provided under the subtopic “Installing the Sentinel
Driver”
The SETUP program will:
• Copy system files to your Windows folder
• Copy program and support files to the folder that you specify on your local
machine
• Optionally copy sample data files to a subfolder called EXAMPLES
• Optionally copy tutorial files to a subfolder called TUTORIALS
• Optionally copy manual files to a subfolder called MANUALS
• Register SAP2000 for use with Windows
• Add SAP2000 to the Start menu for Windows 95/98/NT
Network Server Installation
To copy the entire SAP2000 program to a network server for subsequent installa-
tion and execution by network workstations:
• Turn on your computer and start Windows 95/98/NT
• Youmust performthe installation fromaWindows 95/98/NTmachine, but you
can actually install the programonto anyWindows, Novell, or other type of file
server that can be accessed from Windows 95/98/NT workstations
• You must have sufficient rights to create files on the server
• IMPORTANT! No other applications should be running during the installa-
tion procedure. Close all other applications before proceeding!
• Follow the instructions below under either subtopic “Installing from a CD” or
subtopic “Installing from a Network Server”
• You will be asked to chose the destination folder in which to store the setup,
system, program, and support files on the network server
• When asked to select the type of Setup, choose “Network Server”
• Respond to the remaining prompts from SETUP to complete the installation
The SETUP program will:
• Copy setup, system, program, and support files to the folder that you specify on
the network server

Installation 9
Chapter II Getting Started
15• Copy sample data files to a subfolder called EXAMPLES
• Copy tutorial files to a subfolder called TUTORIALS
• Copy manual files to a subfolder called MANUALS
IMPORTANT! You will not be able to run SAP2000 after this installation. You
must still perform single-user or network-workstation setup from the network
server in order to use the program.
Network Workstation Installation
To install SAP2000 on your network workstation to run from a network server:
• Turn on your computer and start Windows 95/98/NT
• IMPORTANT! No other applications should be running during the installa-
tion procedure. Close all other applications before proceeding!
• Follow the instructions below under subtopic “Installing from a Network
Server”. You should not perform this installation from a CD
• You will be asked to chose the destination folder in which to store small sup-
port files on your local machine
• When asked to select the type of Setup, choose “Network Workstation”
• Respond to the remaining prompts from SETUP to complete the installation
• If you are ever going to attach the hardware key device to this computer then
follow the instructions provided under the subtopic “Installing the Sentinel
Driver”
The SETUP program will:
• Copy system files to your Windows folder
• Copy support files to the folder that you specify on your local machine
• Optionally copy sample data files to a subfolder called EXAMPLES
• Optionally copy tutorial files to a subfolder called TUTORIALS
• Optionally copy manual files to a subfolder called MANUALS
• Register SAP2000 for use with Windows
• Add SAP2000 to the Start menu for Windows 95/98/NT
Whenever you run SAP2000 your workstation must have access to the network
server from which you installed SAP2000.
10 Installation
SAP2000 Getting Started
16Installing from a CD
To install SAP2000 from a CD:
• Insert the SAP2000 CD into your CD-ROM drive
• Wait for the SAP2000 setup program to start automatically. If the setup pro-
gram does not start, then:
– Select Run from the Windows Start menu
– For the Command Line in the Run dialog box, type “D:\SETUP” (without
the quotes). If your CD is in a drive other than D:, substitute the appropriate
drive letter for D:
– Click OK in the Run dialog box to start the installation
• Follow the remaining instructions in the subtopics above (“Single User Instal-
lation” or “Network Server Installation”) for the type of installation you are
performing.
Installing from a Network Server
To install SAP2000 from a network server:
• Ask your network administrator for the location of an existing SAP2000
network-server installation
• Select Run from the Windows Start menu
• For the Command Line in the Run dialog box, type the complete path to the
SAP2000 SETUP.EXE programas given to you by your network administrator
• Click OK in the Run dialog box to start the installation
• Follow the remaining instructions in the subtopics above (“Single User Instal-
lation”, “Network Server Installation”, or “NetworkWorkstation Installation”)
for the type of installation you are performing.
Installing the Sentinel Driver
In order to use the hardware key device on aWindows 95/98/NT machine, either in
local mode or as a key server, you must install the Sentinel Driver for Windows
95/98/NT. This driver is NOT automatically installed by the SAP2000 setup pro-
gram and must be separately installed. The driver is not required for machines ac-
cessing the key across the network; it is only required formachines with the key de-
Installation 11
Chapter II Getting Started
17vice attached. See Topic “Using the Hardware Key Device” below for more infor-
mation.
The installation of the Sentinel driver is a one-time process that needs to be per-
formed on each machine that may have a hardware key device attached to its paral-
lel port. After that, the Sentinel driver will automatically run every time you start
your computer.
The Sentinel drivers for the hardware key device are located on the SAP2000 CD in
a directory called NETDRIVE.
The installation must be performed directly at the machine, whether a server or
workstation, where the key device will be attached.
To install the driver on any Windows machine:
• Insert the SAP2000 CD into your CD-ROM drive if it is not already there
• If the SAP2000 setup programstarts automatically, click theCancel button and
then click Exit Setup
• Select Run from the Windows Start menu
• For the Command Line in the Run dialog box, type “D:\NETDRIVE\SETUP”
(without the quotes). If your CD is in a drive other than D:, substitute the appro-
priate drive letter for D:
• Click OK in the Run dialog box to start the installation
The installation takes only a second or two. It proceeds quietly, requiring no input
from you, and displaying no messages unless an error occurs. After the installation
is done (the hourglass disappears), you should restart your system.
If an error does occur during installation of the Sentinel driver, check the following:
• If you are installing the Sentinel driver on aWindows NT machine, make sure
that you have administrative rights to that machine
• Restart your computer, make sure all applications are closed, and try installing
the Sentinel driver again
Removing SAP2000 from Your System
If you need to remove SAP2000 from your system, or before installing a new ver-
sion of SAP2000:
12 Installation
SAP2000 Getting Started
18• Turn on your computer and start Windows 95/98/NT
• IMPORTANT! No other applications should be running during this proce-
dure. Close all other applications before proceeding
• From the Windows Start menu choose Settings, then choose Control Panel,
and double-click on the Add Remove Programs icon. Click on SAP2000 in
the scroll box and then click on the Remove button
• Follow the prompts. When asked, you may safely remove all shared compo-
nents that reside in the SAP2000 folder.
Using the Hardware Key Device
SAP2000 is copy-protected program that uses a hardware key device that is pro-
vided with the software. This hardware key device must always be accessible to
SAP2000 whenever you use the program. This is done by attaching the key device
to the parallel port of your local workstation or to that of another workstation on
your local area network, as described below. The same key device may be used in
either local or network access modes.
If SAP2000 cannot find the hardware key device while you are using the program,
SAP2000 will enter display-only mode, with the following implications:
• You can use the graphical user interface to display the results of previous
analyses
• You can save your current model
• You cannot make changes to your model
• You cannot perform analysis or design
If the hardware key device inadvertently becomes unavailable while you are using
SAP2000, you should save your model, exit the program, then reattach the key de-
vice before restarting SAP2000.
On a Local Workstation
If you are normally going to use SAP2000 on a single workstation, it is simplest to
attach the hardware key device directly to that workstation.
You must first install the Sentinel driver as described in subtopic “Installing the
Sentinel Driver” under Topic “Installation” above. This is a one-time installation
procedure.
Using the Hardware Key Device 13
Chapter II Getting Started
19Attach the key device to any parallel printer port on your workstation. The key de-
vice should be directly attached to the computer port. Any printers, data switches,
or other devices that use the portmay then be attached to the other end of the key de-
vice. The hardware key device does not require a printer to be connected or, if con-
nected, for it to be powered.
You may connect an extension cable between the computer port and the hardware
key device, and/or between the key device and any printer or other devices. Use a
straight-through DB-25 male to DB-25 female cable.
Hardware key devices for different programs can usually be attached to the same
parallel port. Contact Computers and Structures, Inc., if you are using multiple key
devices and are experiencing conflicts.
On a Local Area Network
If you are going to use SAP2000 on multiple workstations, it may be more conven-
ient to attach the hardware key device to one workstation and access it from other
workstations across a local area network.
The workstation to which the hardware key device is attached is called the key
server. The key device is attached to the key server as described above for a local
workstation. The key server must be running Windows 95/98/NT and running the
key-server program NSRVGX as described below.
You must first install the Sentinel driver on the key server as described in subtopic
“Installing the Sentinel Driver” under Topic “Installation” above. This is a one-
time installation procedure.
The hardware key device works with the IPX/SPX and/or NetBIOS/NETBEUI
network protocols. You need to have one or both of these protocols running for the
hardware key device to work over a network. SAP2000 does not use the TCP/IP
protocol, although this and other protocols may also be running concurrently over
the network. ForWindows 95 it is very important that the protocols be set up identi-
cally on the machines running SAP2000 and the machines serving the hardware
key device.Many people have had success setting IPX/SPX as the default protocol
for Windows 95 and then enabling NetBIOS emulation over IPX/SPX.
The standard, single-user key will allow different workstations to access SAP2000
at different times.Multiple-user keys are available that will allow simultaneous use
of SAP2000 by more than one workstation. Several key devices can exist on the
same network by usingmultiple key servers. Each key servermay connect to one or
more key devices on one or more ports. Concurrent usage of SAP2000 is allowed
14 Using the Hardware Key Device
SAP2000 Getting Started
20from different workstations up to the sum of the license limits of all key devices on
all key servers.
Each key server must be running NSRVGX in order for the key device to be acces-
sible across the network. Without NSRVGX, the key device is available locally
only to the key-server workstation itself.
The key device should be attached to the parallel port before startingNSRVGX. Se-
lect Run fromtheWindows Startmenu to start NSRVGX.EXE, which is located in
the SAP2000 folder. After a few seconds of initialization, NSRVGX will run mini-
mized as an icon. You may open the NSRVGX window to see which network pro-
tocols NSRVGX has detected and how many workstations are currently accessing
the hardware key devices attached to the key server. You may minimize the win-
dow, but do not stop NSRVGX or shut down the key-server workstation while other
workstations are accessing the attached key device.
Note that it may take a few moments for SAP2000 to access a hardware key device
across a network, particularly if the network is busy or if the key server is perform-
ing other tasks.
Important note: The present version of NSRVGX is unable to run if it is located
under a folder whose name contains a space character. By default, SAP2000 is in-
stalled in a SAP2000 subfolder under the folder “Program Files”. Since this folder
name contains a space character, NSRVGX will not run.
To remedy this situation, copy NSRVGX.EXE to another folder so that there are no
space characters anywhere on the path, and run it from that folder. This problem
should be fixed in a subsequent release of SAP2000.
Technical Support
Free technical support is available from Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI) via
phone, fax, and e-mail for 90 days after the software is purchased. Technical sup-
port is available after 90 days if you have a current maintenance agreement with
CSI.Maintenance agreements also provide for free or reduced-cost upgrades to the
program. Please call your dealer to inquire about a maintenance agreement.
Technical support is provided only according to the terms of the Software License
Agreement that comes with the program.
If you are experiencing problems using the software, please:
Technical Support 15
Chapter II Getting Started
21• Consult the documentation and other printed information included with your
product
• Check the on-line Help facility in the program
If you cannot find a solution, then contact us as described below.
Help Us to Help You
Whenever you contact us with a technical-support question, please provide us with
the following information to help us help you:
• The program name (SAP2000 Standard, PLUS, or Nonlinear) and version
number that you are using
• A description of your model, including a picture, if possible
• A description of what happened and what you were doing when the problem
occurred
• The exact wording of any error messages that appeared on your screen
• A description of how you tried to solve the problem
• The computer configuration (make and model, processor, operating system,
hard disk size, and RAM size)
• Your name, your company’s name, and how we may contact you
Phone and Fax Support
Standard phone and fax support is available in the United States, from CSI support
engineers, via a toll call between 8:30 A.M. and 5:00 P.M., Pacific time, Monday
through Friday, excluding holidays.
You may:
• Contact CSI’s office via phone at (510) 845-2177, or
• Send a fax with questions and information about your model (including a pic-
ture, if possible) to CSI at (510) 845-4096
When you call, please be at your computer and have the programmanuals at hand.
Online Support
Online support is available by:
16 Technical Support
SAP2000 Getting Started
22• Sending an e-mail and your model file to support@csiberkeley.com
• Visiting CSI’s web site at http://www.csiberkeley.com to read about frequently
asked questions
If you send us e-mail, be sure to include all of the information requested above un-
der subtopic “Help Us to Help You.”
Upgrading from SAP90
Most modeling and analysis features available in SAP90 are also present in
SAP2000, and many new features have been added. Only the SAP90 heat-transfer
analysis features are not currently available in SAP2000.
SAP90 input data files (versions 5.4 and 5.5) can be imported directly into the
SAP2000 graphical user interface and automatically converted to SAP2000 mod-
els. These models can then be modified, analyzed, designed, and displayed.
WARNING! Some imported data may be interpreted differently by SAP2000 than
by SAP90. For example, the interaction between end offsets and end releases is dif-
ferent between the two programs, as is the interaction between prestress load and
P-Delta analysis.
Please note that SAP90 BridgeMoving Load cases may be translated into multiple
SAP2000 Moving Load cases. In many cases, you may be able to combine them
back into a single SAP2000 Moving Load case, but you will have to do this manu-
ally. For each SAP90 Moving Load case, a single SAP2000 envelope-type Combo
is created during translation. Please also note that the pmportion of the SAP90 lane
load was used for momentsM2 andM3 for all elements, while the floating concen-
trated load pm for the SAP2000 vehicle load only applies to the vertical moment
(usually M3), and only for lane elements.
Be sure to check your imported model carefully! Compare the results of analyses
using both SAP90 and SAP2000 before making further use of the imported SAP90
model!
Units
When you import a SAP90 input data file, you will be asked to specify what force
and length units were used in the SAP90 file. These units then become the base
units for the SAP2000 model. You may convert the model to other units after im-
porting.
Upgrading from SAP90 17
Chapter II Getting Started
23Upward Direction
When you import a SAP90 input data file, you will be asked to specify what direc-
tion was assumed to be upward in the SAP90 file. All coordinate-dependent quanti-
ties in the SAP90 model will be converted to conform with the SAP2000 conven-
tion that the +Z direction is upward. The X coordinates will not be changed unless
±X is upward in the SAP90 model, in which case the Y coordinates will be left un-
changed.
18 Upgrading from SAP90
SAP2000 Getting Started
24Chapter III
The Graphical User Interface
The SAP2000 graphical user interface (GUI) is used to model, analyze, design, and
display your structure. This chapter introduces you to some of the basic concepts of
the graphical user interface and to set the stage for the tutorial described in the next
chapter.More advanced concepts and features are described in the on-line Help fa-
cility of the graphical user interface itself.
Topics
• The Structural Model
• Coordinate Systems
• The SAP2000 Screen
• Viewing Options
• Gridlines
• Basic Operations
19
25The Structural Model
SAP2000 analyzes and designs your structure using a model that you define with
the graphical user interface. Themodelmay include the following features that rep-
resent your structure:
• Material properties
• Frame elements that represent beams, columns, and/or truss members
• Shell elements that represent walls, floors, and other thin-walled members
• Joints that represent connections of elements
• Restraints and springs that support the joints
• Loads, including self-weight, thermal, seismic, and others
• After SAP2000 analyzes your structure, the model also includes displace-
ments, stresses, and reactions due to the loads
The graphical user interface provides you with many powerful features to create
your model. You can even start with a preliminary model, then use the SAP2000
design optimization feature to refine your model with little effort.
In the topics below, the term objects will be used to refer to the geometric compo-
nents of the model: Frame elements, Shell elements, and joints.
See the SAP2000 Basic Analysis Reference in the second half of this volume for
more information about the structural model.
Coordinate Systems
All locations in the model are ultimately defined with respect to a single global co-
ordinate system. This is a three-dimensional, right-handed, rectangular (Cartesian)
coordinate system. The three axes, denoted X, Y, and Z, are mutually perpendicu-
lar, and satisfy the right-hand rule.
Each component of the model (joint, Frame element, Shell element, etc.) has its
own local coordinate system used to define properties, loads, and response for that
component. The axes of each local coordinate system are denoted 1, 2, and 3.
Youmay define additional coordinate systems to aid in developing and viewing the
model.
20 The Structural Model
SAP2000 Getting Started
26The SAP2000 Screen
The SAP2000 graphical user interface appears on your screen and looks similar to
the following:
The various parts of this interface are labeled above and described below.
Main Window
Themain window contains the entire graphical user interface. This windowmay be
moved, resized, maximized, minimized, or closed using standard Windows opera-
tions. Themain title bar, at the top of themainwindow, gives the programname and
the model name.
Menu Bar
The menus on theMenu Bar contain all of the operations that you can perform with
SAP2000.
Main Toolbar
TheMain Toolbar provides quick access to some commonly used operations, espe-
cially file , viewing , and assigning operations.All of the operations available on the
Main Toolbar can also be accessed from the Menu Bar.
The SAP2000 Screen 21
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
27Side Toolbar
The Side Toolbar provides quick access to some common operations that are used
to change the model geometry. These operations include drawing and selection
operations and snap options. All of the operations and options available on the Side
Toolbar can also be accessed from the Menu Bar.
Display Windows
Displaywindows showthe geometry of themodel, andmay also include properties,
loading, analysis or design results.Youmay have fromone to four displaywindows
present at any time.
Each window may have its own view orientation, type of display, and display op-
tions. For example, the undeformed shape could be displayed in one window, ap-
plied loads in another, an animated deformed shape in a third, and design stress ra-
tios in the fourth window. Alternatively, you could have four different views of the
undeformed shape or other type of display: a plan view, two elevations, and a per-
spective view.
Only one displaywindowis “active” at a time.Viewing and display operations only
affect the current active window. You may make any display window active by
clicking on its title bar or within the window.
Status Line
The status line shows current status information, a drop down box that shows or
changes the current units, the current pointer location, and the animation controls
when displaying deformed shapes or mode shapes.
Viewing Options
You may set the view options for the active Display Window that affect how the
structure appears in that window. These options are available in the Viewmenu and
fromtheMain Toolbar.Different viewoptionsmay apply to differentDisplayWin-
dows.
22 The SAP2000 Screen
SAP2000 Getting Started
282-D and 3-D Views
A 2-D view consists of a single plane parallel to one of the coordinate planes: X-Y,
X-Z, or Y-Z. Only objects in that plane are visible. You may change the out-of-
plane coordinate of the plane at any time.
A 3-D view shows the whole model from a vantage point of your choice. Visible
objects are not restricted to a single plane. The view direction is defined by an angle
in the horizontal plane and an angle above the horizontal plane.
Perspective
A 3-D view may be toggled between a perspective view and an orthographic pro-
jection. The perspective view is usually better for visualizing the third, out-of-
plane, dimension. If perspective is turned on for a 2-D view, the view becomes 3-D
until perspective is turned off again.
You may set the perspective aperture angle which defines how close you are to the
structure. The larger the angle, the closer you are, and the more distorted the struc-
ture may appear.
Pan, Zoom, and Limits
Youmay zoom-in to a view to seemore detail, or zoom-out to seemore of the struc-
ture. Zooming in and out may be done in predefined increments. You may also
zoom-in to a part of the structure that you define by dragging a window with the
mouse.
Panning allows you to dynamicallymove the structure around the DisplayWindow
by clicking and moving the mouse.
You may set upper and lower X, Y, and Z coordinate limits that restrict the portion
of the structure that is visible in a DisplayWindow. Zooming and panning only ap-
ply to the part of the structure within these limits.
Element View Options
Youmay set various options that affect how the joints and elements appear in a Dis-
playWindow. These options primarily affect views of the undeformed shape. Dif-
ferent options are available for the different element types.
Viewing Options 23
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
29Options include whether or not a particular type of element is visible and what ele-
ment features are displayed, such as element labels, property labels, section dimen-
sions (extrusions), and local axes.
An important option is the shrunken-element view. This shrinks the elements away
from the joints allowing you to better see the connectivity of the model.
Other Options
You may turn gridlines and the global axes on and off. You may save view parame-
ters under a name of your choice, and recall themlater to apply to any DisplayWin-
dow.
Gridlines
The grid is a set of “construction” lines parallel to the coordinate axes that form a
“framework” to assist you in drawing the model. You may have any number of
gridlines in each direction with arbitrary spacing that you define.When you start a
new model, you must specify uniform spacing for the grid. Thereafter, you may
add, move, and delete gridlines.
Drawing operations tend to “snap” to gridline intersections unless you turn this fea-
ture off. This facilitates accurate construction of your model. When you move a
grid line, you can specify whether or not attached joints should move with it.
Basic Operations
It will be helpful for you to understand the basic types of operations that you can
perform with SAP2000. The program responds differently to mouse actions in the
display windows depending upon the type of operation you are performing. Details
on how to actually perform these operations are given in the quick tutorial in the
next chapter, and in the on-line Help facility of the graphical user interface itself.
File Operations
File operations are used to start a new model, to bring in an existing model for dis-
play or modification, to save the model that you are currently working on, and to
produce output. File operations are selected fromthe Filemenu and the correspond-
ing buttons on the Main Toolbar.
24 Viewing Options
SAP2000 Getting Started
30New models can be started from scratch or from pre-defined templates supplied
with the program.
Existingmodels can be brought in that were created by the SAP2000 graphical user
interface, defined by SAP90 or SAP2000 analysis text files, or created by Auto-
CAD or other programs that generate a .DXF file (geometry only).
Models can be saved in a standard SAP2000 database file (.SDB extension), or the
model geometry can be saved in a .DXF file for use by AutoCAD and other pro-
grams.
Output that can be produced includes tables of input, analysis, and design data in
printable, displayable, or spreadsheet format; graphical printout of the active dis-
play window; or video output of animated mode shapes or time-history deflected
shapes.
Defining
Defining is used to create named entities that are not part of the geometry of the
model. These entities include:
• Material properties
• Frame and Shell section properties
• Static load cases
• Joint patterns for temperature and pressure loading
• Object groups
• Response-spectrum functions and analyses
• Time-history functions and analyses
• Load combinations
Defining these entities is performed using the Define menu and does not require a
prior selection of objects.
The first five of these entities can be assigned to selected objects. These entities can
also be defined during the assignment operation from the Assign menu.
The remaining entities apply to the model as a whole and are not assigned to ob-
jects.
Basic Operations 25
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
31Setting View Options
All of the viewing options described above in Topic “Viewing Options” may be set
for the active window using the View Menu or the corresponding buttons on the
Main Toolbar.
Drawing
Drawing is used to add new objects to the model or to modify one object at a time.
Objects include Frame elements, Shell elements, and joints.
To draw, you must put the program into DrawMode by clicking on one of the six
draw buttons on the Side Toolbar. Alternatively, the same six draw operations can
be selected from the Draw menu. These operations are:
• Moving or reshaping existing objects
• Adding new joints
• Adding new Frame elements by clicking at their end locations
• Adding new Shell elements by clicking at their corner locations
• Adding new Frame elements by clicking on a grid segment or space
• Adding new Shell elements by clicking on a grid space
New joints are automatically created at the ends of Frame elements and at the cor-
ners of Shell elements. Duplicate joints and elements are automatically eliminated
by the program.
In DrawMode, the left mouse button is used to draw and edit objects, and the right
mouse button is used to query the properties of objects.
In 3-D views cursor placement is limited to known locations, such as gridlines and
existing joints. In 2-D views, cursor placement can be anywhere, since the third
(out-of-plane) dimension is known.
In 2-D views, cursor movements can be controlled by using “snap” and “drawing
constraint” tools during drawing and reshaping elements. Snap tools find the
closest snap location to your pointer as youmove it over yourmodel. The snap tools
are a fast and accurate way to draw and edit elements. The snap tools can be turned
on and off as you draw. More than one snap tool can also be turned on at the same
time giving you a choice of snap locations. Currently there are five snap options:
26 Basic Operations
SAP2000 Getting Started
32• Snap to Joints andGrid Points tool finds and snaps to the Joint or intersection
of Grid Lines closest to the mouse pointer.
• Snap to Midpoints and Ends tool finds and snaps to the closest midpoint or
end of frames and shells. Itwill also snap to the end points ofNLLink elements.
• Snap To Element Intersections tool finds and snaps to the intersection of two
frame elements and a frame element with a shell element.
• Snap To Perpendicular tool finds and snaps to the intersection point of a line
drawn from the last entered points, perpendicular to the frame element or shell
edge closest to the mouse pointer.
• Snap to Lines and Edges tool finds and snaps to or “hugs” the closest frame
element, grid line, or edge of the closest shell element.
The Drawing Constraint tools provide the capability to enforce the placement of a
point on lines which are parallel to one of the axes and which pass through the last
drawn point. In this manner, one can quickly draw a frame element parallel to one
of the global axes. Drawing constraints include:
• Constant X locks the X coordinate of the next point to be drawn
• Constant Y locks the Y coordinate of the next point to be drawn
• Constant Z locks the Z coordinate of the next point to be drawn
• None or Spacebar cancels a constraint
Snaps can optionally be used in conjunction with constraints. Only the
unconstrained component of the selected snap point is used when a constraint has
been selected.
Draw Mode and Select Mode are mutually exclusive. No other operations can be
performed when the program is in Draw Mode.
Selecting
Selecting is used to identify those objects to which the next operation will apply.
SAP2000 uses a “noun-verb” concept where you first make a selection, and then
perform an operation on it. Operations that require you to make a prior selection in-
clude certain Editing, Assignment, Printing, and Display operations.
To select, you must put the program into SelectMode by clicking on one of the se-
lect buttons on the Side Toolbar. Alternatively, selecting any action from the Select
or Display menus puts the program into Select Mode.
Basic Operations 27
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
33Many different types of selection are available, including:
• Selecting individual objects
• Drawing a window around objects
• Drawing a line that intersects objects
• Identifying a particular plane
• Selecting objects having the same property type
• Selecting objects that belong to the same group
• and more
In Select Mode, the left mouse button is used to select objects, and the right mouse
button is used to query the properties of objects.
Draw Mode and Select Mode are mutually exclusive. Any operation except draw-
ing can be performed when the program is in Select Mode.
Editing
Editing is used to make changes to the model. Most editing operations work with
one or more objects that you have just selected. Editing operations are selected
from the Edit menu, including:
• Cutting and Copying the geometry of selected objects to the Windows clip-
board. Geometry information put on the clipboard can be accessed by other
programs, such as spreadsheets
• Pasting object geometry from the Windows clipboard into the model. This
could have been edited in a spreadsheet programfroma previous Cut or Copy
• Adding to the model from a template
• Deleting objects
• Moving joints, which also modifies connected elements
• Replicating objects in a linear or radial array
• Dividing Frame and Shell elements into smaller elements
• and more
Adding and pasting to themodel do not operate on selected objects, and can be done
in Draw or Select Mode. All other operations require a prior selection of objects.
28 Basic Operations
SAP2000 Getting Started
34Assigning
Assignment is used to assign properties and loads to one or more objects that you
have just selected. Assignment operations are selected from the Assign menu, in-
cluding:
• Assigning restraints, constraints, springs, masses, local coordinate systems,
and loads to joints
• Assigning section properties, end releases, local coordinate systems, end off-
sets, output locations, prestressing patterns, P-delta forces, pushover hinges,
and loads to Frame elements
• Assigning section properties, local coordinate systems, and loads to Shell ele-
ments
• Assigning pattern values to joints for defining temperature and pressure loads
• Assigning objects to named groups to aid future selection operations
Undo and Redo
SAP2000 remembers all drawing, editing, and assignment operations that you per-
form. It is possible to Undo a series of actions previously performed. If you have
gone too far in the Undo process you may Redo those actions. Undo and Redo are
accessed from the Edit menu or the Main Toolbar.
Analyzing
After you have created a complete structuralmodel using the operations above, you
can analyze the model to determine the resulting displacements, stresses, and reac-
tions.
Before analyzing, you may set analysis options from the Analyze menu. These op-
tions include:
• Available degrees of freedom for the analysis
• Modal analysis parameters
• P-Delta analysis parameters
• Which analysis results to be written to the output file
• The amount of RAM to be used
To run the analysis, select Run from the Analyze menu, or click the Run Analysis
button on the Main Toolbar.
Basic Operations 29
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
35The programsaves themodel in a SAP2000 database file, then checks and analyzes
the model. During the checking and analysis phases, messages from the analysis
engine appear in a monitor window. When the analysis is complete, you may re-
view the analysis messages using the scroll bar on the monitor window. Click on
the OK button to close the monitor window after you have finished reviewing these
messages.
No other SAP2000 operations may be performed while the analysis is proceeding
and the monitor window is present on the screen. You may, however, run other
Windows programs during this time. If you are analyzing a very large model that
may take a while to complete, use Run Minimized instead of Run in the Analyze
menu.
Displaying
Displaying is used to view the model and the results of the analysis. Graphical dis-
plays, tabular displays, and function plots are all available.All display typesmay be
chosen from the Display menu. Several of these may also be accessed from the
Main Toolbar.
Graphical Displays
You may select a different type of graphical display for each Display Window.
Each window may also have its own view orientation and display options.
Available displays of the model include the undeformed geometry, loads, and joint
patterns used for pressure and temperature loading.
Analysis results that can be graphically displayed include deformed shapes; vibra-
tionmode shapes; Frame-element force,moment, and influence-line diagrams; and
Shell-element force, moment and stress contour plots. Deformed shapes and mode
shapes can be animated. The influence line diagrams are only available from the
PLUS and Nonlinear versions.
Details of the displayed results can be obtained by clicking on a joint or element
with the right mouse button.
Tabular Displays
Detailed analysis results can be displayed in a special text window for a single joint
or element at a time. After selecting Output TableMode fromthe Displaymenu, re-
sults are displayed each time you click on a joint or element with the right mouse
button. The displayed text window can be printed.
30 Basic Operations
SAP2000 Getting Started
36Alternatively, tabular information can be printed or displayed for selected joints
and elements by choosing Print Input Tables or Print Output Tables from the File
menu. If no joints or elements are selected, the tables produced are for the whole
model. This can be done at any time without activating Output Table Mode.
Function Plots
Function plots are graphs of one variable against another. These include response-
spectrum curves, pushover curves and time-history traces, all of which are gener-
ated from the results of a time-history analysis. Function plots are displayed in a
special plotwindowandmay be printed. The pushover analysis and so the pushover
curves are only available from the Nonlinear version.
You must make a prior selection of one or more joints of interest before displaying
response-spectrum curves. You have the option of selecting one or more joints
and/or elements of interest before displaying time-history traces. Pushover curve
represents overall performance of the structure although you need to select a con-
trol joint to measure the performance.
Designing
Designing is used to check steel and/or concrete Frame elementswith respect to dif-
ferent design-code requirements. Design may be performed after the structure has
been analyzed.
Steel Frame elements can have a minimum weight section automatically picked
from a set of sections that you have defined. The structure should then be analyzed
again and the design rechecked.
Concrete Frame elements can have the area of longitudinal and shear reinforcing
steel automatically chosen according to the selected design code. Re-analysis is not
required.
Graphical displays of stress ratios and design parameters are available. Tabular de-
sign information can be obtained for single Frame elements by clicking on them
with the right mouse button. Alternatively, tabular design information can be
printed or displayed for selected elements by choosing Print Design Tables from
the File menu.
Locking and Unlocking
After an analysis is performed, the model is automatically locked to prevent any
changes that would invalidate the analysis results and subsequent design results
Basic Operations 31
Chapter III The Graphical User Interface
37that may be obtained. You may also lock the model yourself at any time to prevent
further changes to your model, or unlock the model to permit changes. Lock and
Unlock are accessed from the Main Toolbar.
When you unlock the model after an analysis, you will be warned that the analysis
results will be deleted. If you do not want this to happen, save themodel under a dif-
ferent name before unlocking it. Any subsequent changes will then be made to the
new model.
Refreshing the Display Window
After performing certain operations, the DisplayWindowmay need to be re-drawn.
Normally this is done automatically, but you may use the Options menu to turn this
feature off in order to save you time when working with large models. In this case,
click on the RefreshWindow button on theMain Toolbar whenever you would like
the active display window to be re-drawn and updated.
32 Basic Operations
SAP2000 Getting Started38

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